Tag Archives: roast malt

Kev’s New Kit: Brewday

In the attempt to meet a certain important academic deadline, I haven’t been posting. I have

How Rustic!

been brewing, and now that I’m back to blogging who knows what delights will appear in due course.

The post that takes me out of my hermit-like exile is devoted to a Saturday’s brew day at the brand new shed-brewery of my brewing associate Kevin, in Dublin’s north city. Poor Kevin finally has a shed of his own, which is the unalienable right of every man and woman interested in fiddling and tinkering with objects, and above all, brewing beer. It’s not a huge shed, and it’s an odd little shape, nonetheless it contains a brewery capable of boiling probably 80L, though we only brewed half that.

The Elements of KevBrau

The Kit: The boiler and the Hot Liquor Tank are 100 litre pots that were sourced in France. I bagged one too, which I use as a fermentor. Kevin has taps on his, and they are both heated by quite impressive gas burners. The gas bottles live outside the shed, and with the window and door open there is no danger of any fume buildup. The mash tun is a picnic cooler with something like a 65L capacity. The transfer between the vessels is via a little 12v pump, a solid little workhorse despite its size! There is a vent that is happily situated right beside the boiler. In time I think this could be hooked up to a lid with a flexi pipe, to direct the boil off steam straight out of the shed.

For our brewday we made a simple stout, something along the lines of an “export strength” beer. We brewed 40L, our recipe was straightforward, if I remember correctly there was 12 KG of Pilsner Malt, 800 G of Roast Barley, 700 G of Chocolate Malt, and 500G of Black Malt. There may also have been a little crystal in there, I’m sure Kevin can fill us in in one of his “witty” comments. The Og was to be in the 70s somewhere. The water was treated with calcium chloride flakes, at least, it was the second time around. Kevin already had it measured out and dissolved in a pot of water, waiting to be added to the mash. I tipped it out because I thought it was just dirty water. That’s what happens when two people try to brew a beer.

Nom Nom Nom

The mash smelled incredible as usual. My favourite mashes are the really dirty looking ones where there’s heaps of dark malts, like this beer. The smell of chocolate, coffee, just general roastiness is almost irresistible. I wanted to scoop some out and eat it like porridge. We ran the wort off into the boiler, sparged, and added the second runnings, getting about 45 litres.

The brew took most of the afternoon, and in between waiting for this to heat up, or that to cool down, we played, at a rough estimate, 30 games of Pro Evolution Soccer 8 (Kevin has recently upgraded from PES06), getting through such classic matches as France vs Germany, Brazil vs Argentina, MUFC vs Chelsea, several “El Classicos” and of course, em, Sweden vs Denmark.

The beer was hopped with Northern Brewer, a mid strength hop which has quite a spicy smell. Around 80 G went in at the start, with a couple of additions towards the end of the boil. The beer should be around 70-80 IBU, which might sound like a lot, but the higher the strength of a beer the more it needs to be balanced by higher hopping, or else it can taste cloyingly sweet, even if it is 40 or 50 IBU on paper. This is especially true of big stouts.

We pitched some very fresh yeast that I had taken from an active fermentation only that morning. The stout had taken off by the following morning, so here’s hoping it ferments out well. The yeast was originally White Labs 028 (Edinburgh Ale), which I had cultured on to slants in the fridge.

All in all, an epic brew day, with the new setup performing extremely well!

**Special Edit!** I neglected, in this post, to mention the awesome cookies, not to mention the bean soup that Hazbo made us while we were fearlessly brewing. I’d like to take this opportunity to express my admiration for Hazbo, and add that she looked fantastic on saturday on her way out on the lash with to meet some knitty types for cocktails and sushi. Knitters are clearly classier than brewers.

Post-Brew Gunk

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Brewing a “Black IPA”

A wonderful new oxymoron from our American cousins, but as Ron Pattinson pointed out last year this ‘innovation’ was already brewed by the brewers at Burton, home of hoppy IPAs at least as early as 1888. The passage from the old brewing book that Pattinson pulls out hits the nail on the head as to what this ‘new’ style is supposed to bring us, basically it will look beautiful and black like a stout, but it will taste like an IPA. Faulkner in “The theory and practice of modern brewing” says

while I can example this by referring to the black beer produced at Burton, which has been universally described as a mere black pale ale—i.e., though black in colour, its palate taste reminds one very strongly of the pale beers produced by Burton firms.

The Grain Bill: Pale, Crystal and Carafa

He is not a fan. But Kev and I were intrigued enough to give one a go. The style that the Great American Beer Festival recognise as “Cascadian Dark Ale”, “India Black Ale” or “Black IPA” seems like a bit of fun. But why is this not just a heavily hopped stout or Porter? Well the key is to get the thing black without giving it a burnt or coffee bitter roast character that a stout might have. The key to this is to use dark caramel malts like dark crystal, and “Carafa®”, a proprietary malt from Weyermann. Carafa is de husked roasted malt, and by removing the husks you remove a lot of the bitterness. Of course the Continental Europeans have long been at this, i.e. brewing black beers (schwarzbier) which taste just like lagers, that is they do not have the roasted character, but they are very dark brown or black. Faulkner in the cited passage basically says this about the Burton example: ‘it might be ok for the euro-types, but it’s not what I expect from a stout”

It will be quite understood that I am not decrying this article; it may and does suit many palate tastes, and is thought a great deal of on the Continent, but at the same time it differs very widely from the accepted standard quality of a black beer as specified

Plenty of Hops

So basically the point was to make an IPA, but add some Carafa malt to turn it black. Here’s what we came up with:

“Black IPA” : 40L : Mash Efficiency 86% : OG 1.076 : ABV 7.2% : 78 IBU : 34 SRM

Grains: 9KG Pale Malt, 1KG Munich, 750G Crystal (55l), 750G Crystal (150l), 500G Carafa® III

Hops: 60 mins: 65G Magnum, 20 mins: 40G Chinook,40G Cascade, 5 mins: 25G Chinook, 30G Cascade, End of Boil: 40G Amarillo, 20G Chinook, Dry Hop: 100G Citra

Yeast: Wyeast West Yorkshire (1469 PC)

We mashed at 66c for 60 minutes, and sparged with 80c water. We treated the water roughly for the “porter” profile on the following calculator with some

Recirculating the mash: Don't disturb the grain bed!

CRS and some Calcium Chloride. We used a mixture of Bairds Maris Otter and Weyermann Pale Ale Malt as the base malt. We are accustomed at this stage to using Magnum as a nice clean bittering hop, and as for the rest, we thought that the sweetness of Cascade would be tempered by Chinook, which I regard as a bit of a ‘rough’ flavour, but rough in a good way. I think Stone brewing Co. use a lot of Chinook in their IPAs, and I once made an all Chinook IPA that was one of my favourites. Amarillo has to my mind a more pleasant aroma to Cascade, so we stuck it in at the knockout. As far as the Citra goes, well, we were already brewing the latest fad from America so Citra, a proprietary hop recently developed for Sierra Nevada (and the talk of the town, where that town is exclusively populated by hopheads) seemed apt. It is used as a dry hop in their beautiful “Torpedo”, in fact it is dry-hopped using the device of the same name, a vessel that is filled with hops while the already fermented beer is pumped through it repeatedly to strip every ounce of flavour from them. I’m really looking forward to it, it is supposed to be very similar to Amarillo, on the orangey side of citrus.

In fact, we realised half way through the brew that we were brewing very trendy; combining the hop-du-jour, Citra, and the latest style from the Pacific Northwest. The July-August edition of Brew Your Own magazine devoted an article to it, “Birth of a Style: Cascadian Dark Ale”. As Kev leafed through it he looked at me, horrified, and said “Do you realise that we’re really brewing to style  here?”, as the article waxed lyrical about the “unexpected flavours” revealed by the interaction between the classic Northwestern hops like Cascade and Amarillo, and the debittered dark malts. I’m looking forward to those!

We mashed a total of 12KG, which is about as much as my mash tun can handle, though I have noticed that my efficiency rockets when I brew this amount.

The blue one is dead. The rest are healthy, but they are very sad. This is like a little yeast funeral.

Last weekend Peter and I brewed a clone of Goose Island IPA (recipe to follow shortly) and my efficiency was up towards 80%. For the Black IPA I calculated it as 86%, which I imagine is down to the increased grain bed depth, I have read that correct grain bed depth is important to efficiency. I recirculated 2L as usual, we ran it off, and had to sparge twice for about 44L pre-boil volume. I added about 2 or 3L extra during the boil to keep it topped up, and I had enough to make a 5L batch of 2nd runnings at about 1.045 OG.

Lately, inspired by Chris White (of Whitelabs) and Jamil Zainasheff’s wonderful book Yeast, I got the old microscope down out of the attic. I had a starter on the go of West Yorkshire yeast from Wyeast, and so I plated up a diluted sample of it, and I added the pigment “methylene blue”, which is used to check the vitality of your yeast cells. The dead cells stain blue, because they cannot metabolise the dye. I’m still waiting for my Hemocytometer to arrive in the post, it’s basically a microscope slide that

Because this beer was such a great idea we decided to ferment it in a giant lightbulb that Kev found.

has a tiny grid etched on it, so you can do a yeast count, and estimate upwards based on how many cells there are in a microscopic square, to how many millions of cells there are per ml. But at least this showed me that very few of my cells were dead, and so the yeast was healthy. It was surprisingly easy to take a picture, I just held the camera up to the eyepiece and twirled the knob until it was in focus.

Our Black IPA is fermenting away strongly now, and as soon as it gets near the final gravity I plan to introduce it to 100G Citra, and they can have a little chat about who is trendier.

Happily fermenting away

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Brewing for the Barrel

Back in April I described a trip to a distillery, where we bought a whiskey barrel (which we have since christened ‘Rotunda’) with the intention of filling it full of very strong Imperial Stout. That barrel is 200L, but there are three of us

Peter gives praise

filling it. Well today Ladies and Gentlemen, I am please to announce that 40L of the future contents of that barrel have been wrested from non-being into being, by me. Incipit Diogenes! (Diogenes is what I, at least, am referring to the beer as, for reasons explained in the aforementioned post. Peter, on the other hand calls it ‘The Virgin Birth’, but then he’s a deeply religious man)

There will be about 100KG of base malt alone in this brew, and a couple of KG of hops, so we decided to order in bulk. We bought 1 tonne of malt on a Pallet from England (Bairds), the delivery of which was a joyous occasion. Peter (who I told you was deeply religious) offered supplication to the malt gods that Rotunda would prove a fertile vessel. Kev clutched 25KG of black malt wondering what the hell we were getting ourselves in to. Of course we didn’t keep all this malt, we shifted much of it onwards to our friends and fellow brewers at the ICB, but we are certainly malted up for the foreseeable future. This beer is also highly

12KG or so of grain for the barrel brew

hopped, but luckily a friend was passing by Charles Faram the hop merchant in Worcestershire recently, and we were able to buy some Kilos of Magnum and Cascade at wholesale prices. My living room smells divine, and I’m wandering around in a hoppy daze.

So with our ingredients sorted, we set about formulating a recipe. It looked to be the case that even with only 20L batches, there would be over 12KG of malt in the mash, which I already discovered is my coolerbox’s limit. We came up with a fairly standard Imperial Stout recipe, containing black malt, chocolate malt, and roast barley, along with the grainy beauty of amber malt. For bittering, we went with the cheapest high alpha hop, which at the moment is the Hallertau hybrid Magnum. Magnum is also a good all purpose bitterer for things like IPAs, so it won’t go to waste. For flavour, we decided to use cascade, although not normally associated with this style. Apart from the malt, there will be flavours from the barrel, the oak and the whiskey, and so anything less assertive might have gotten lost. Cascade is normally associated with pale beers, but actually the Americans put it in stouts and porters all the time.  Also the more traditional Fuggles and Goldings are quite expensive at the moment, and since we bought the cascade in bulk we wanted something versatile that we could use in plenty of other brews. We are

Monster Mash, mashing at the limits.

pragmatists after all.

Yeast is another important factor- with a beer this big, it’s important to pitch lots of healthy yeast, so two weeks ago I brewed a fairly standard porter, with an OG of about 1.050, and I pitched in a packet of Wyeast 1084 ‘Irish Ale’ yeast, the classic stout yeast that is supposed to have originated in a certain well known brewery down the road. So yesterday armed with copious amounts of malt, hops and yeast I was ready to brew the monster.

The plan was to do two 20L brews back to back, I got up early and got going. I added calcium chloride flakes to the mash in order to get that malty profile that we need. Our recipe involved Pale Ale Malt as a base, with roasted Barley, Amber, Chocolate and Black Malts. We used Magnum to bitter, and Cascade at the end. Our yeast was the classic stout yeast, WYeast 1084 “Irish Ale”

 

The Runoff

The grain bill was huge, and difficult to stir as I was doughing in, there just wasn’t much space. I think it was the philosopher Wittgenstein who said in Philosophical Investigations that “The limits of my mash are the limits of my world”, or something like that, and now I see what he meant. I mashed it with about 30L which means a ratio of about 2.5/1, which should be ok.The runoff came in under the expected gravity though, even though with a grain bill this size we were banking on lower than normal efficiency (65%). I think I worked out that the efficiency must have only been 60%. My OG for the first batch came in at about 1.100. The second was about the same but I had a little more wort than expected, 22L. When both brews were in the fermenter the OG was 1.095, which is a bit below target, but then I’m confident that my beer will ferment lower than 1.029. I have a feeling I’ll get closer to 1.020, which means we should be close to the projected ABV, which is the theoretical limit of the yeast anyway, at about 12% alcohol it begins to die. We’ll just have to wait and see how low it goes! I have plans to improve efficiency next time. I don’t think it was a sparging issue as I fly sparged the second batch and it didn’t make a difference. My runoff could be too fast, also the tap is at one end of the mash, which could be causing uneven drainage, so I’m going to run a pickup tube into the middle of the mash tun. We

A black and beautiful torrent

have another couple of goes at this to get it right.

I did get a second beer our of these mashes though, a stout at OG 1.053, which is pretty good for second runnings! It also explains where all the excess sugar went, and it is some compensation for the poor efficiency of the first brew.  It will also serve to keep the yeast in motion, for the second batch of this next week.

As well as pitching enough yeast, good aeration is paramount, but I find that I get plenty of aeration by just opening the tap and letting the jet of black ambrosia shoot out the two feet or so down to the fermenter, and lots of good aerating splashing occurs. Fermentation was already vigorous when I got up the next morning, after only 7 hours. As you can see, there was already a thick 3 inch head of Krauesen formed. When I got back that evening, there had clearly been a bid for freedom from the stout,

After only 7 hours! I should have known what was coming…

but thankfully not much had escaped. It really made a mess of the fermenting box, the whole lid and sides were covered with gunk. I cleaned and sanitised the lid and the top of the box, and replaced it to finish fermenting. After this furious fermentation I’ll be surprised if it doesn’t ferment to a reasonably low final gravity. More reports when we have them!

“It Came from The Fermenter…”

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Roast Malt

something I meant to do for quite a while was roast my own malt, so I finally gave it a go, and tried a few different things. A recent group buy with some of the folks on the ICB meant that I had bags of ale malt that only cost me about 85c per KG. Speciality malt on the HBC costs more like €4.50 per KG though. This means that if I make anything other than a blonde ale, my costs go way up.Oven So I lined two baking trays with foil, and I set the oven at 100°c, for 30 minutes. This was the drying phase. I raised it to 175°c, for 40 minutes, for the roasting phase. Finally, I gave one tray 15 minutes at 200°c, and the other 45 minutes at 200°c. The one with less was to be a sort of amber malt,  the darker roast, I simply called… em, “roast malt”. You can see on the crush pictures how they compare to the original roast malt. amber crushroast crush

I had one further idea. I have recently been roasting my own coffee beans from green, and although I used a popcorn popper for a while, as is popular among home roasters, I burnt out the motor one day by overloading it, so I reverted to the method I was originally using, which was quick and regular stirring in a wok over a gas flame. I decided to give that a go with the malt, in the hope of getting something dark like a chocolate malt. I used 300g, and I tossed them on a low heat, raising to medium after a while. All in all I woked them for about 25 minutes. The result was a wonderfully brown malt, which looked like chocolate malt, to me at least. It had quite a bitter roasty flavour when chewed. Wok Roasted Here is a picture of it compared to some unroasted malt.

Roast malt, like home roasted coffee beans, require some time to develop their flavour. Apparently some of the harsher flavours dissipate during that time also. So I left the grain in some paper bags for a week or two before brewing with them.

I brewed what I called a harvest beer using this home roasted malt, and I bottled it this evening. I have had a few sneaky samples, and the maltiness is incredible. The smell is nutty and toasty, without being too bitter. The taste really comes through also. I don’t know whether this is the roast malt or the wok malt. I will be very interested to see how this fares after a few weeks in the bottle.

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